264 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. main army, however, advanced, and Shah Abbas was induced to open up negotiations for peace. In A.H. 1027 (i618) the terms agreed to in the previous treaty were accepted, except that Shah Abbas bound himself to a gift of one hundred loads of silk, instead of the two hundred previously agreed upon. Seven years later a Turkish army besieged Baghdad with only four light fieldpieces. The siege dragged on for six months, and Shah Abbas then came to the rescue. After fierce fighting, with heavy losses on both sides, a mutiny forced the Turkish leaders to retreat, and thousands of their men died from starvation. These campaigns were the first in which the advantage lay distinctly with Persia. Although the Sultan was generally the aggressor, the Shah's troops proved that they could at least hold their own against the enemy. The Embassies of Sir Robert Sherley.—Sir Robert Sherley was appointed Master-General of the Persian army, and while holding this position won great distinction in the Turkish wars. The Shah bestowed many tokens of his favour on the gallant Englishman, among them being a grant of bread for sixty years ! In spite of the failure of Anthony's mission, Abbas determined to despatch Robert Sherley on an embassy to the European powers. • He left Persia in 1609 and visited Poland, Germany, and Rome. In 1611 he reached England, where he was well received by the King, but the object of his mission, which was to open up direct trade relations between Persia and England, met with strong opposition from the Levant merchants and was not at the time attained. Sherley remained in England a year and returned to Persia by way of India in an English ship, In 1623 Sir Robert Sherley came to England on a second mission. On this occasion his position was weakened by the arrival of another ambassador from Shah Abbas in the person of a certain Nakd AH Beg,1 who, upon meeting Sherley, assaulted him. The English knight finally returned to' Persia with Sir Dodmore 1 We learn from the Court Minutes of the East India Company that Nakd All Beg before his departure was presented with his portrait " exactly and curiously drawn by Mr. Greenburie." The artist also painted a replica which is hung in the India Office.